Gold standarwar golddThe interwar partially backed gold standard was inherently unsle, because of the conflict between the expansion of liabilities to foreign central banks and the resulting deterioration in the Bank of Englands reserve ratio. France was then attempting to make Paris a world class financial center, and it received large gold flows as well.

FRB Speech, BernankeMoney, Gold, and the Great Depression March , . Federalreserve.gov.

Gold used to pay for imports reduces the money supply of importing nations, causing deflation, which makes them more competitive, while the importation of gold by net exporters serves to increase their money supply, causing inflation, them less competitive.

Robert P. Murphy.Another major ctor is that governments in the s were interfering with wages and prices more so than at any prior point in peacetime history. Mises

is a system in which gold coins do not circulate, but the authorities agree to sellgold bullionon demand at a fixed price in exchange for the circulating currency.

Golden Fetters The Gold Standard and the Great Depression,

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Gold, prices, and wages under the greenback standard

Deflation hurts borrowers and rewards savers, said Drew Matus, senior economist at Banc of America SecuritiesMerrill Lynch in New York, in a telephone interview. If you do borrow right now, and we go through a period of deflation, your cost of borrowing just went through the roof.

In the s,Thomas JeffersonRobert MorrisandAlexander Hamiltonrecommended to Congress the value of a decimal system. This system would also apply to monies in the United States. The question was what of standard gold, silver or both.The United States adopted a silver standard based on theSpanish milled dollarin .

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the monetary unit is associated with the value of circulating gold coins, or the monetary unit has the value of a certain circulating gold coin, but other coins may be made of less valuable metal.

Gold prices US per troy ounce from , in nominal US and inflation adjusted US.

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Hanna, Hugh Henry;Charles Arthur ConantJeremiah Jenks.

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Financial repression occurs when governments implement policies to channel to themselves funds that in a deregulated market environment would go elsewhere

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As financial historian Niall Ferguson writes in Newsweek DoubleDip Depression… We forget that the Great Depression was like a soccer match, there were two halves. The crash kicked off the first half. But what made the depression truly great… began with the European banking crisis of . Sound miliar?

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M. Friedman the severity of each of the major contractions , and is directly attribule to acts of commission and omission by the Reserve authorities.

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McGregor, Richard .Richard McGregorHu questions future role of US dollar. Financial Times, January , . Financial Times

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Cyclopedia of Political Science, Political Economy and the Political History of the United States

Although the gold standard brings longrun price sility, it is historically associated with high shortrun price volatility.

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Lever of Empire The International Gold Standard and the Crisis of Liberalism in Prewar Japan

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Creation of new money reduces interest rates and thereby increases demand for new lower cost debt, raising the demand for money.

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Consolidated Statutes of Newfoundland st Series, , Title V, Of the Regulation of Trade in Certain Cases, c. ,

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Giovannini, Alberto; De Melo, Martha . Government Revenue from Financial Repression.

Appelbaum, Binyamin .G.O.P. Candidates Viewing Economys Past Through GoldColored Glasses.

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Sility of international exchange Report on the introduction of the goldexchange standard into China and other silverusing countries

Inflation also followed theCalifornia Gold Rushthat made large amounts of gold available for minting.

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The gold standard provides fixed international exchange rates between participating countries and thus reduces uncertainty in international trade. Historically, imbalances between price levels were offset by a balanceofpayment adjustment mechanism called thepricespecie flow mechanism.

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Spillius, Alex .Tea Party legislation reveals anxiety at US direction under Barack Obama.

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The consensus view is that the gold standard contributed to the severity and length of the Great Depression.

Download entire World Economic Outlook daase, April .

Keary, Charles Francis. . A Catalogue of English Coins in the British Museum. AngloSaxon Series. Volume I. Poole, Reginald Stewart, ed. Elibron Classics. pp. ii, xxiixxv

Nicholson, J. S.April .The Abandonment of the Gold Standard.

AustraliaandNew Zealandadopted the British gold standard, as did the British West Indies, while Newfoundland was the onlyBritish Empireterritory to introduce its own gold coin.Royal Mint branches were eslished inSydneyMelbourne, andPerthfor the purpose of minting gold sovereigns from Australias rich gold deposits.citation needed

The US did not suspend the gold standard during the war. The newly createdFederal Reserveintervened in currency markets and sold bonds to sterilize some of the gold imports that would have otherwise increased the stock of money.citation neededBy many countries had returned to the gold standard.As a result of World War I the United States, which had been a net debtor country, had become a net creditor by .

Rothwell, Richard Pennether. . Universal Bimetallism and An International Monetary Clearing House, together with A Record of the Worlds Money, Statistics of Gold and Silver, Etc. New York The Scientific Publishing Company. pp. .

In a poll of U.S. economists in the IGM Economic Experts Panel found that none of them believed returning to the gold standard would result in pricesility and employment outcomes [that] would be better for the average American. The panel of polled economists included past Nobel Prize winners, former economic advisers to both Republican and Democratic presidents, and senior culty from Harvard, Chicago, Stanford, MIT, and other wellknown research universities. The specific statement with which the economists were asked to agree or disagree was as follows If the US replaced its discretionary monetary policy regime with a gold standard, defining a dollar as a specific number of ounces of gold, the pricesility and employment outcomes would be better for the average American.

In the early s, the Federal Reserve defended the dollar by raising interest rates, trying to increase the demand for dollars. This helped attract international investors who bought foreign assets with gold.

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In , Congress passed theMint and Coinage Act. It authorized the federal governments use of the Bank of the United States to hold its reserves, as well as eslish a fixed ratio of gold to the U.S. dollar. Gold and silver coins were legal tender, as was theSpanish real. In the market price of gold was about times that of silver.Silver coins left circulation, exported to pay for the debts taken on to finance theAmerican Revolutionary War. In President Jefferson suspended the minting of silver coins. This resulted in a derivative silver standard, since the Bank of the United States was not required to fully back its currency with reserves. This began a long series of attempts by the United States to create abimetallic standard.

CNN .Utah Forget dollars. How about gold?.

In September , following a period of financial upheaval in Europe that created concerns about British investments on the Continent, speculators attacked the British pound, presenting pounds to the Bank of England and demanding gold in return. … Unable to continue supporting the pound at its official value, Great Britain was forced to leave the gold standard, … With the collapse of the pound, speculators turned their attention to the U.S. dollar

Other ctors in the prolongation of the Great Depression includetrade warsand the reduction ininternational tradecaused by barriers such asSmootHawley Tariffin the US and theImperial Preferencepolicies of Great Britain,the ilure of central banks to act responsibly,government policies designed to prevent wages from lling, such as theDavisBacon Actof , during the deflationary period resulting in production costs dropping slower than sales prices, thereby injuring business profitsand increases in taxes to reduce budget deficits and to support new programs such asSocial Security. The US top marginal income tax rate went from to in and to in ,while the bottom rate increased over tenfold, from . in to in .The concurrent massive drought resulted in the USDust Bowl.

The gold standard illusion France, the Bank of France, and the International Gold Standard,

Bayoumi, Tamim A.;Barry J. Eichengreenand Mark P. Taylor .

Canada and the Gold Standard Balance of Payments Adjustment Under Fixed Exchange Rates,

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Under commodity standards currency itself has no intrinsic value, but is accepted by traders because it can be redeemed any time for the equivalent specie. AUS silver certificate, for example, could be redeemed for an actual piece of silver.

The money supply would essentially be determined by the rate of gold production. When gold stocks increase more rapidly than the economy, there is inflation and the reverse is also true.

World production for was circa ,tonnes. Since the s, annual gold output growth has approximately kept pace withworld populationgrowth i.e. a doubling in this periodalthough it has lagged behind world economic growth approximately fold increase since the s, and x since .

The gold standard is often blamed for prolonging the Great Depression, as under the gold standard, central banks could not expand credit at a st enough rate to offset deflationary forces.

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The growth of the international economy

In , theArizona Legislaturepassed SB , which would have made gold and silver coin a legal tender in payment of debt, but the bill was vetoed by the Governor.

It has been argued by Schwartz, among others, that insility in shortterm price levels can lead to financial insility as lenders and borrowers become uncertain about the value of debt.

Reinhart, Carmen M.; Rogoff, Kenneth S. .

A gold standard provides practical constraints against the measures that central banks might otherwise use to respond to economic crises.

Prior, Ed April .How much gold is there in the world? via

Ideology and the evolution of vital institutions guilds, the gold standard, and modern international cooperation

Brief History of the Gold Standard in the United States

Why the Gold Standard Is the Worlds Worst Economic Idea, in Charts Matthew OBrien. The Atlantic.

. American Classical College Press.ISBN.

. Research Division Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Hamilton, James D.April .Role of the International Gold Standard in Propagating the Great Depression.

DeLong, Brad.Why Not the Gold Standard?Berkeley, CaliforniaUniversity of California, Berkeley

Starting in the administration of PresidentCharles de Gaulleand continuing until , France reduced its dollar reserves, exchanging them for gold at the official exchange rate, reducing US economic influence. This, along with the fiscal strain of federal expenditures for theVietnam Warand persistent balance of payments deficits, led U.S. PresidentRichard Nixonto end international convertibility of the U.S. dollar to gold on August , theNixon Shock.

Officer, Lawrence.there was ongoing tension with France, that resented the sterlingdominated gold exchange standard and desired to cash in its sterling holding for gold to aid its objective of achieving firstclass financial status for Paris. Eh. Archived fromthe originalon November ,

William O. Scroggs.What Is Left of the Gold Standard?.

In the s, the United Kingdom suffered a silver shortage. It ceased to mint larger silver coins and instead issued token silver coins and overstruck foreign coins. With the end of theNapoleonic Wars, theBank of Englandbegan themassive recoinage programmethat created standard gold sovereigns, circulating crowns, halfcrowns and eventually copper rthings in . The recoinage of silver after a long drought produced a burst of coins. The United Kingdom struck nearly million shillings between and , million half crowns and . million silver crowns.

Gold certificateswere used as currencyin theUnited Statesfrom to . These certificates were freely convertible intogold coins.

Lever of Empire The International Gold Standard and the Crisis of Liberalism in Prewar Japan

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The glitter of gold France, bimetallism, and the emergence of the international gold standard,

Eichengreen, Barry; Mitchener, Kris August .The Great Depression as a Credit Boom Gone Wrong

Braga de Macedo, Jorge; Barry J. Eichengreen; Jaime Reis .

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Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke At the Conference to Honor Milton Friedman. The Federal Reserve Board. November ,

. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Archived fromthe originalon July ,

Towards the end of the th century, some silver standard countries began to peg their silver coin units to the gold standards of the United Kingdom or the United States. In ,British Indiapegged the silverrupeeto thepound sterlingat a fixed rate of s d, while in , theStraits Settlementsadopted a gold exchange standard against sterling, fixing the silver Straits dollar at s d.

The intention was to use gold for large denominations, and silver for smaller denominations. A problem with bimetallic standards was that the metals absolute and relative market prices changed. The mint ratio the rate at which the mint was obligated to pay/receive for gold relative to silver remained fixed at ounces of silver to ounce of gold, whereas the market rate fluctuated from . to to to . With theCoinage Act of , Congress passed an act that changed the mint ratio to approximately to .Gold discoveries in Californiain and later in Australia lowered the gold price relative to silver; this drove silver money from circulation because it was worth more in the market than as money.Passage of the Independent Treasury Act of placed the U.S. on a strict hardmoney standard. Doing business with the American government required gold or silver coins.

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, nd edition , Vol., S.

Friedman, Milton; Schwartz, Anna Jacobson .A Monetary History of the US . Princeton University Press. p..ISBN

Farrell, Paul B. December , .Our decade from hell will get worse in . MarketWatch

Devaluing a currency under a gold standard would generally produce sharper changes than the smooth declines seen in fiat currencies, depending on the method of devaluation.

Greenspan, Alan .Gold and Economic Freedom. Constitution

The greater of two evils. The Economist. May ,

McArdle, Megan.Theres gold in them thar standards!.

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Monetary standards in the periphery , silver and gold,

Gold and Economic Freedom by Alan Greenspan Great Britain red even worse, and rather than absorb the full consequences of her previous folly, she abandoned the gold standard completely in , tearing asunder what remained of the bric of confidence and inducing a worldwide series of bank ilures.

Drummond, Ian M. The Gold Standard and the International Monetary System . Macmillan Education, LTD, .

FormerU.S. Federal ReserveChairman, Alan Greenspan acknowledged he was one of a small minority within the central bank that had some positive view on the gold standard.In a essay he contributed to a book byAyn Rand, titled Gold and Economic Freedom, Greenspan argued the case for returning to a pure gold standard; in that essay he described supporters of fiat currencies as welre statists intending to use monetary policy to finance deficit spending.More recently he claimed that by focusing on targeting inflation central bankers have behaved as though we were on the gold standard, rendering a return to the standard unnecessary.

Conduct of Monetary Policy Report of the Federal Reserve Board Pursuant to the Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of , P.L. and The State of the Economy Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Monetary Policy of the Committee on Banking and Financial Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, July , FRASER St. Louis Fed.

You mayimprove this article, discuss the issue on thetalk , orcreate a new article, as appropriate.

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Hill, Liezel January , .Gold mine output hit record in , more gains likely this year GFMS. Mining Weekly

Articles Free the Planet Gold Standard Act . Free the Planet. . Archived fromthe originalon

Thatcher warned Major about exchange rate risks before ERM crisisThe Guardian.

Clark, Stephen March , .Utah Considers Return to Gold, Silver Coins. Fox News

Around the start of the th century, thePhilippinespegged the silver peso/dollar to the U.S. dollar at cents. This move was assisted by the passage of the Philippines Coinage Act by theUnited States Congresson March , .Around the same timeMexicoand Japan pegged their currencies to the dollar. WhenSiamadopted a gold exchange standard in , onlyChinaandHong Kongremained on the silver standard.

Whaples, Robert February , .California Gold Rush. Economic History Association. Archived fromthe originalon November ,

Countries with current account surpluses accumulated gold, while deficit countries saw their gold stocks diminish. This, in turn, contributed to upward pressure on domestic spending and prices in surplus countries and downward pressure on them in deficit countries, thereby leading to a change… that should, eventually, have reduced imbalances.

Most nations abandoned the gold standard as the basis of their monetary systems at some point in the th century, although many hold substantialgold reserves.A survey of leading American economists showed that they unanimously reject that a return to the gold standard would benefit the average American.

The Deceit of the Gold Standard and of Gold Monetization

Keogh, Bryan May , .Real Rate Shock Hits CEOs as Borrowing Costs Impede Recovery. Bloomberg

. Gold dates culled from historical sources, principally

Government accounts were legally separated from the banking system. However, the mint ratio the fixed exchange rate between gold and silver at the mint continued to overvalue gold. In , the US reduced the silver weight of coins to keep them in circulation and in removed legal tender status from foreign coinage. In the final crisis of the free banking era began as American banks suspended payment in silver, with ripples through the developing international financial system. Due to the inflationary finance measures undertaken to help pay for theUS Civil War, the government found it difficult to pay its obligations in gold or silver and suspended payments of obligations not legally specified in specie gold bonds; this led banks to suspend the conversion of bank liabilities bank notes and deposits into specie. In money was made legal tender. It was afiat moneynot convertible on demand at a fixed rate into specie. These notes came to be calledgreenbacks.

The unequal distribution of gold deposits makes the gold standard more advantageous for those countries that produce gold.

Historical data shows that the magnitude of short run swings in prices were r higher under the gold standard.

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The gold standard makes it difficult for governments to inflate prices through expanding the money supply. Under the gold standard, significant inflation is rare, andhyperinflationis essentially impossible because the money supply can only grow at the rate that the gold supply increases. High inflation under a gold standard is seen only when ware destroys a large part of an economy, reducing the production of goods, or when a major new gold source becomes available.

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The Manchester School of Economic Social Studies

Commodity moneyis inconvenient to store and transport in large amounts. Furthermore, it does not allow a government to manipulate the flow of commerce with the same ease that a fiat currency does. As such, commodity money gave way torepresentative moneyand gold and otherspeciewere retained as its backing.

.Berkeley, California The University Press.OCLC.

This was meant to be a temporary measure, with the gold price of the dollar and the official rate of exchanges remaining constant. Revaluing currencies was the main purpose of this plan. No official revaluation or redemption occurred. The dollar subsequently floated. In December , theSmithsonian Agreementwas reached. In this agreement, the dollar was devalued from per troy ounce of gold to . Other countries currencies appreciated. However, gold convertibility did not resume. In October , the price was raised to .. Once again, the devaluation was insufficient. Within two weeks of the second devaluation the dollar was left to float. The . par value was made official in September , long after it had been abandoned in practice. In October , the government officially changed the definition of the dollar; references to gold were removed from statutes. From this point, the international monetary system was made of pure fiat money.

Dissent on Keynes, A Critical Appraisal of Economics

Ultimately, the system could not deal quickly enough with the largebalance of paymentsdeficits and surpluses; this was previously attributed to downward wage rigidity brought about by the advent ofunionized labor, but is now considered as an inherent ult of the system that arose under the pressures of war and rapid technological change. In any case, prices had not reached equilibrium by the time of theGreat Depression, which served to kill off the system completely.

Warburton, Clark . The Monetary Disequilibrium Hypothesis.

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Following Germanys decision after the FrancoPrussian Warto extract reparations to cilitate a move to the gold standard, Japan gained the needed reserves after the SinoJapanese War of . For Japan, moving to gold was considered vital for gaining access to Western capital markets.

The gold specie standard ended in the United Kingdom and the rest of the British Empire at the outbreak of World War I, when Treasury notes replaced the circulation of gold sovereigns and gold half sovereigns. Legally, the gold specie standard was not repealed. The end of the gold standard was successfully effected by the Bank of England through appeals to patriotism urging citizens not to redeem money for gold specie. It was only in , when Britain returned to the gold standard in conjunction with Australia and South Africa that the gold specie standard was officially ended.

In modern times, theBritish West Indieswas one of the first regions to adopt a gold specie standard. FollowingQueen Annes proction of , the British West Indies gold standard was ade ctogold standard based on the Spanish golddoubloon. In , SirIsaac Newton, the master of theRoyal Mint, eslished a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation and putting Britain on a gold standard.selfpublished source

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Gold was a preferred form of money due to its rarity, durability, isibility,fungibilityand ease of identification,often in conjunction with silver. Silver was typically the main circulating medium, with gold as the monetary reserve. Commodity money was anonymous, as identifying marks can be removed. Commodity money retains its value despite what may happen to the monetary authority. After the ll ofSouth Vietnam, many refugees carried their wealth to the West in gold after the national currency became worthless.citation needed

Bordo, Michael D;Anna Jacobson SchwartzNational Bureau of Economic Research.

Currency convertibility the gold standard and beyond

High Taxes and High Budget DeficitsThe HooverRoosevelt Tax Increases of the s

Countries that left the gold standard earlier than other countries recovered from the Great Depression sooner. For example, Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries, which left the gold standard in , recovered much earlier than France and Belgium, which remained on gold much longer. Countries such as China, which had a silver standard, almost entirely avoided the depression due to the ct it was then barely integrated into the global economy. The connection between leaving the gold standard and the severity and duration of the depression was consistent for dozens of countries, including developing countries. This may explain why the experience and length of the depression differed between national economies.

Bordo, Dittmar Gavin in a world with two capital goods, the one with the lower depreciation rate emerges as commodity money

Congress passed theGold Reserve Acton January ; the measure nationalized all gold by ordering Federal Reserve banks to turn over their supply to the U.S. Treasury. In return the banks received gold certificates to be used as reserves against deposits and Federal Reserve notes. The act also authorized the president to devalue the gold dollar. Under this authority the president, on January , changed the value of the dollar from . to the troy ounce to to the troy ounce, a devaluation of over .

th ed.. Worth. pp..ISBN.

.AnnandaleonHudson, New York Jerome Levy Economics Institute.OCLC.

the Union also experienced inflation as a result of deficit finance during the war; the consumer price index rose from at the outset of the war to by the end of

The gold standard is supported by many followers of theAustrian School of Economics, freemarketlibertariansand somesupplysiders.

The US had a gold stock of . million ounces t in . Stocks rose to . million ounces t in , declined in to . million ounces t and rose to . million ounces t in . Net exports did not mirror that pattern. In the decade before the Civil War net exports were roughly constant; postwar they varied erratically around prewar levels, but fell significantly in and became negative in and . The net import of gold meant that the foreign demand for American currency to purchase goods, services, and investments exceeded the corresponding American demands for foreign currencies. In the final years of the greenback period , gold production increased while gold exports decreased. The decrease in gold exports was considered by some to be a result of changing monetary conditions. The demands for gold during this period were as a speculative vehicle, and for its primary use in the foreign exchange markets financing international trade. The major effect of the increase in gold demand by the public and Treasury was to reduce exports of gold and increase the Greenback price of gold relative to purchasing power.

Depression, Inflation, and Monetary Policy Selected Papers,

. Bank of England. December . Archived fromthe original

The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays

Boaz, David .Time to Think about the Gold Standard?.

In the U.S., inflation occurred during the Civil War, which destroyed the economy of the South.

In , some candidates for the presidential election advocated for a gold standard, based on concern that theFederal Reserves attempts to increase economic growth may create inflation. Economic historians did not agree with candidates assertions that the gold standard would benefit the US economy.

Lopez, Robert Sabatino Summer . The Dollar of the Middle Ages.

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Drummond, Ian M.;The Economic History Society.

. Boston Kluwer Acad. Publ.ISBNOCLC.

For other uses, seeGold standard disambiguation.

gold standard, where the value of the means of exchange has a fixed external value in terms of gold that is independent of the inherent value of the means of exchange itself.

Most economists vor a low, positive rate of inflation of around . This reflects fear of deflationary shocks and the belief that active monetary policy can dampen fluctuations in output and unemployment. Inflation gives them room to tighten policy without inducing deflation.

Between the DollarSterling Gold Points Exchange Rates, Parity and Market Behavior

After theSecond World War, a system similar to a gold standard and sometimes described as a gold exchange standard was eslished by the Bretton Woods Agreements. Under this system, many countries fixed their exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar and central banks could exchange dollar holdings into gold at the official exchange rate of per ounce; this option was not available to firms or iniduals. All currencies pegged to the dollar thereby had a fixed value in terms of gold.

Financial repression acts as a mechanism to transfer wealth from creditors to debtors, particularly the governments that practice it. Financial repression is most successful in reducing debt when accompanied by inflation and can be considered a form oftaxation.

The inflationary attempts of the government from January to October were thus offset by the peoples attempts to convert their bank deposits into legal tender Hence, the will of the public caused bank reserves to decline by million in the latter half of , and the money supply, as a consequence, fell by over four billion dollars in the same period.

Cassel, Gustav. The Downll of the Gold Standard. Oxford University Press, .

. University of California Regents. Archived fromthe original

The gold standard and employment policies between the Wars

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Appelbaum, Binyamin .The Good Old Days of the Gold Standard? Not Really, Historians Say.

The gold specie standard arose from the widespread acceptance of gold as currency.Various commodities have been used asmoney; typically, the one that loses the least value over time becomes the accepted form.Chemically, gold is of all majormetalsthe one most resistant to corrosion.citation needed

TheAustrian Schoolasserted that the Great Depression was the result of a credit bust.Alan Greenspanwrote that the bank ilures of the s were sparked by Great Britain dropping the gold standard in . This act tore asunder any remaining confidence in the banking system.Financial historianNiall Fergusonwrote that what made the Great Depression truly great was theEuropean banking crisis of .According to Fed ChairmanMarriner Eccles, the root cause was the concentration of wealth resulting in a stagnating or decreasing standard of living for the poor and middle class. These classes went into debt, producing the credit explosion of the s. Eventually the debt load grew too heavy, resulting in the massive deults and financial panics of the s.

Eichengreen, Barry J.; Marc Flandreau .

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A gold standard does not allow some s offinancial repression.

Christina D. Romer December .Great Depression

Gold and the Gold Standard The Story of Gold Money Past, Present and Future

For example,Germanyhad gone off the gold standard in , and could not effectively return to it becauseWar reparationshad cost it much of its gold reserves. During theOccupation of the Ruhrthe German central bank Reichsbank issued enormous sums of nonconvertible marks to support workers who were on strike against the French occupation and to buy foreign currency for reparations; this led to theGerman hyperinflation of the early sand the decimation of the German middle class.

Former congressmanRon Paulis a longterm, highprofile advocate of a gold standard, but has also expressed support for using a standard based on a basket of commodities that better reflects the state of the economy.

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Gold standard and related regimes collected essays

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American Economic Association . The Elasticity of the Federal Reserve Note.

U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries

From to , wars within Europe as well as an ongoing trade deficit with China which sold to Europe but had little use for European goods drained silver from the economies of Western Europe and the United States. Coins were struck in smaller and smaller numbers, and there was a proliferation of bank and stock notes used as money.

Some economic historians, such asBarry Eichengreen, blame the gold standard of the s for prolonging theeconomic depressionwhich started in and lasted for about a decade.In the United States, adherence to the gold standard prevented the Federal Reserve from expanding the money supply to stimulate the economy, fund insolvent banks and fund government deficits that could prime the pump for an expansion. Once off the gold standard, it became free to engage in suchmoney creation. The gold standard limited the flexibility of the central banks monetary policy by limiting their ability to expand the money supply. In the US, the central bank was required by theFederal Reserve Act to have gold backing of its demand notes.Others including former Federal Reserve ChairmanBen BernankeandNobel PrizewinnerMilton Friedmanplace the blame for the severity and length of the Great Depression at the feet of the Federal Reserve, mostly due to the deliberate tightening of monetary policy even after the gold standard.They blamed the US major economic contraction in on tightening of monetary policy resulting in higher cost of capital, weaker securities markets, reduced net government contribution to income, the undistributed profits tax and higher labor costs.The money supply peaked in March , with a trough in May .

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Cassel, Gustav. The Downll of the Gold Standard. Oxford University Press, .

Officer, Lawrence H. . bimetallism. InSteven N. DaundLawrence E. Blume

The interaction between central banking and currency basis formed the primary source of monetary insility during this period. The combination of a restricted supply of notes, a government monopoly on note issuance and indirectly, a central bank and a single unit of value produced economic sility. Deviation from these conditions produced monetary crises.

Ransom, Roger L. February , .The Economics of the Civil War. Economic History Association. Archived fromthe originalon December ,

By the end of , the classical gold standard was at its peak but World War I caused many countries to suspend or abandon it.According to Lawrence Officer the main cause of the gold standards ilure to resume its previous position after World War I was the Bank of Englands precarious liquidity position and the goldexchange standard. A run on sterling caused Britain to impose exchange controls that tally weakened the standard; convertibility was not legally suspended, but gold prices no longer played the role that they did before.In financing the war and abandoning gold, many of the belligerents suffered drasticinflations. Price levels doubled in the US and Britain, tripled in France and quadrupled in Italy. Exchange rates changed less, even though European inflations were more severe than Americas. This meant that the costs of American goods decreased relative to those in Europe. Between August and spring of , the dollar value of US exports tripled and its trade surplus exceeded billion for the first time.

Chancellors Commons Speech. Freetheplanet. Archived fromthe originalon

alAmraawi, Muhammad; AlKhammar alBaqqaali; Ahmad Saabir; AlHussayn ibn Haashim; Abu Sayf Kharkhaash; Mubarak Sadoun alMutawwa; Malik Abu Hamza Sezgin; Abdassamad Clarke; Asadullah Yate .Declaration of U on the Gold Dinar. Islam i Dag. Archived fromthe originalon

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Under a gold bullion standard, notes are convertible at a preset, fixed rate withgold bullion.

.New York CityRoutledge. p.ISBNOCLC.

Greenspan, AlanJuly .Gold and Economic Freedom.

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from until cumulative U.S. production of gold was only about tons. Californias production in alone exceeded this figure, and annual production from to averaged tons. … Soaring gold output from the California and Australia gold rushes is linked with a percent increase in wholesale prices from through

Articles with selfpublished sources from December

The political economy of American industrialization,

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may not represent aworldwide viewof the subject

History of the Bank of EnglandBank of England

Two golden kr coins from theScandinavian Monetary Union, which was based on a gold standard. The coin to the left isSwedishand the right one isDanish.

The Gold Standard Perspectives in the Austrian School

A formal gold specie standard was first eslished in , whenBritainadopted it following the introduction of thegold sovereignby the new Royal Mint atTower Hillin . TheUnited Province of Canadain ,Newfoundlandin , and theUnited Statesand Germany de jure in adopted gold. The United States used theeagleas its unit, Germany introduced the newgold mark, while Canada adopted a dual system based on both the American gold eagle and the British gold sovereign.

A Retrospective on the classical gold standard,

Many other countries followed Britain in returning to the gold standard, this was followed by a period of relative sility but also deflation.This state of afirs lasted until theGreat Depression forced countries off the gold standard. In September , , speculative attacks on the pound forced Britain to abandon the gold standard. Loans from American and French Central Banks of ,, were insufficient and exhausted in a matter of weeks, due to large gold outflows across the Atlantic.The British benefited from this departure. They could now use monetary policy to stimulate the economy. Australia and New Zealand had already left the standard and Canada quickly followed suit.

The anatomy of an international monetary regime the classical gold standard,

FAQs Investment World Gold Council. Gold

Because a gold standard requires that money be backed in the metal, then the scarcity of the metal constrains the ability of the economy to produce more capital and grow.

ISBN. . pp. .

Devalued notes or leaving silver as astore of valuecaused economic problems. Governments, demanding specie as payment, could drain the money out of the economy. Economic development expanded need for credit. The need for a solid basis in monetary afirs produced a rapid acceptance of the gold standard in the period that followed.

Bowyer, Jerry October .My Friendly Debate On The Gold Standard With Allan Meltzer, The Worlds Leading Monetarist.

Andrei, Liviu C. . Money and Market in the Economy of All Times Another World History of Money and PreMoney Based Economies. Xlibris Corporation. pp. .

Bernanke, Ben; Harold James .The Gold Standard, Deflation, and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression An International Comparison. InR. Glenn Hubbard.

Hofstadter, Richard. Free Silver and the Mind of Coin Harvey.

Representative money and the gold standard protect citizens fromhyperinflationand other abuses of monetary policy, as were seen in some countries during the Great Depression. Commodity money conversely led to deflation and bank runs.

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The case for gold a minority report of the U.S. Gold Commission

Gold standard Facts, information, pictures m articles about Gold standard.

Officer, Lawrence. Gold Standard. February . EH. April .

An estimated total of ,tonnesof gold have been mined in human history, according toGFMSas of . This is roughly equivalent to . billiontroy ouncesor, in terms of volume, about , cubic metres ,cuft, or acube metres ft on a side. There are varying estimates of the total volume of gold mined. One reason for the variance is that gold has been mined for thousands of years. Another reason is that some nations are not particularly open about how much gold is being mined. In addition, it is difficult to account for the gold output in illegal mining activities.

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The economistAllan H. MeltzerofCarnegie Mellon Universitypresented arguments againstRon Pauls advocacy of the gold standard from the s onward. He sometimes summarized his opposition by stating simply, [W]e dont have the gold standard. Its not because we dont know about the gold standard, its because we do.

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When adopting the gold standard, many European nations changed the name of their currency, for instance fromDalerSwedenandDenmark orGuldenAustriaHungary to Crown, since the former names were traditionally associated with silver coins and the latter with gold coins.

.Berkeley, CaliforniaUniversity of California Press. p.[]ISBN.

Under theBretton Woods international monetary agreement of , the gold standard was kept without domestic convertibility. The role of gold was severely constrained, as other countries currencies were fixed in terms of the dollar. Many countries kept reserves in gold and settled accounts in gold. Still they preferred to settle balances with other currencies, with the American dollar becoming the vorite. TheInternational Monetary Fundwas eslished to help with the exchange process and assist nations in maintaining fixed rates. Within Bretton Woods adjustment was cushioned through credits that helped countries avoid deflation. Under the old standard, a country with an overvalued currency would lose gold and experience deflation until the currency was again valued correctly. Most countries defined their currencies in terms of dollars, but some countries imposed trading restrictions to protect reserves and exchange rates. Therefore, most countries currencies were still basically inconvertible. In the late s, the exchange restrictions were dropped and gold became an important element in international financial settlements.

Roberts, Mark A March . Keynes, the Liquidity Trap and the Gold Standard A Possible Application of the Rational Expectations Hypothesis.

Hummel, Jeffrey Rogers. Death and Taxes, Including Inflation the Public versus Economists January .[]p.

Aftershock by Robert B. Reich, published Chapter Eccless Insight.

In aninternational goldstandard systemwhich is necessarily based on an internal gold standard in the countries concerned,gold or a currency that is convertible into gold at a fixed price is used to make international payments. Under such a system, when exchange rates rise above or ll below the fixed mint rate by more than the cost of shipping gold, inflows or outflows occur until rates return to the official level. International gold standards often limit which entities have the right to redeem currency for gold.

Real debt burdens therefore rise, causing borrowers to cut spending to service their debts or to deult. Lenders become wealthier, but may choose to save some of the additional wealth, reducingP.

Money and politics European monetary unification and the international gold standard

In the United States, strict constitutionalists object to the government issuing fiat currency through central banks. Some goldstandard advocates also call for a mandated end tofractionalreserve banking. Many similar alternatives have been suggested, including energybased currencies, collections of currencies or commodities, with gold as one component.

Longtermprice silityhas been described as one of the virtues of the gold standard.

A gold standard means that the money supply would be determined by the gold supply and hence monetary policy could no longer be used to silize the economy.

The Act for the Resumption of Cash Paymentsset as the date for resumption of convertibility, which was reached by . Throughout the s, small notes were issued by regional banks. This was restricted in , while the Bank of England was allowed to set up regional branches. In however,Bank of Englandnotes were madelegal tenderand redemption by other banks was discouraged. In , theBank Charter Acteslished that Bank of England notes were fully backed by gold and they became the legal standard. According to the strict interpretation of the gold standard, this act marked the eslishment of a full gold standard for British money.

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Higher interest rates intensified the deflationary pressure on the dollar and reduced investment in U.S. banks. Commercial banks convertedFederal Reserve Notesto gold in , reducing its gold reserves and forcing a corresponding reduction in the amount of currency in circulation. This speculative attack created a panic in the U.S. banking system. Fearing imminent devaluation many depositors withdrew funds from U.S. banks.As bank runs grew, a reverse multiplier effect caused a contraction in the money supply.Additionally the New York Fed had loaned over million in gold over tons to European Central Banks. This transfer contracted the US money supply. The foreign loans became questionable onceBritain, Germany, Austria and other European countries went off the gold standard in and weakened confidence in the dollar.

per data from Economics Professor Mark J. Perry. Mjperry.blogspot.

Silverpenniesbased on the Romandenariusbecame the staple coin ofMerciainGreat Britainaround the time ofKing Of, circa CE.Similar coins, including Italian denari, Frenchdeniers, andSpanish dineros, circulated in Europe. Spanish explorers discovered silver deposits inMexicoin and atPotosinBoliviain .International trade came to depend on coins such as theSpanish dollar, theMaria Theresa thaler, and, later, the United Statestrade dollar.citation needed

Golden Fetters The Gold Standard and the Great Depression,

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Bernanke, Ben March , , Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke Money, Gold and the Great Depression, At the H. Parker Willis Lecture in Economic Policy, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia.

Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke. The Federal Reserve Board. March ,

All references to dollars in this section refer to theUnited States dollar, unless otherwise stated.

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Endgame The End of the Debt SuperCycle and How It Changes Everything

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, nd Edition

The gold specie standard came to an end in the United Kingdom and the rest of the British Empire with the outbreak ofWorld War I.citation needed

The country with the largest unmined gold deposits is Australia.

Afull or reservegold standard exists when the monetary authority holds sufficient gold to convert all the circulating representative money into gold at the promised exchange rate. It is sometimes referred to as the gold specie standard to more easily distinguish it. Opponents of a full standard consider it difficult to implement, saying that the quantity of gold in the world is too small to sustain worldwide economic activity at or near current gold prices; implementation would entail a manyfold increase in the price of gold.citation neededGold standard proponents have said, Once a money is eslished, any stock of money becomes compatible with any amount of employment and real income.While prices would necessarily adjust to the supply of gold, the process may involve considerable economic disruption, as was experienced during earlier attempts to maintain gold standards.

Financial Repression Redux. International Monetary Fund. June

It Shines for All The Gold Standard Editorials of The New York Sun

Rothbard, Murray Newton.The World Currency Crisis.

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usually does not involve the circulation of gold coins. The main feature of the gold exchange standard is that the government guarantees afixed exchange rateto the currency of another country that uses a gold standard specie or bullion, regardless of what of notes or coins are used as a means of exchange. This creates a

Black Friday Also referred to as the

In theUtahlegislature passed a bill to accept federally issued gold and silver coins as legal tender to pay taxes.As federally issued currency, the coins were already legal tender for taxes, although the market price of their metal content currently exceeds their monetary value. Similar legislation is under consideration in other US states.The bill was initiated by newly electedassociated with theTea Party movementand was driven by anxiety over the policies of PresidentBarack Obama.

Dominic Sandbrook .In August , the British colonies and dominions met in the Canadian capital, Ottawa, and agreed a policy of Imperial Preference, putting high tariffs on goods from outside the Empire. London Dailymail

Officer, Lawrence.Breakdown of the Interwar Gold Standard. Eh. Archived fromthe originalon November ,

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Governments with insufficient tax revenue suspendedconvertibilityrepeatedly in the th century. The real test, however, came in the form ofWorld War I, a test which it iled utterly according to economistRichard Lipsey.

Bordo, Michael D.; Dittmar, Robert D.; Gavin, William T. June .Gold, Fiat Money and Price Sility

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Credibility of the interwar gold standard, uncertainty, and the Great Depression

Reform of the International Monetary and Financial System

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Maddison, AngusHistorical Statistics for the World Economy AD.

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Throughout the European crisis, the Federal Reserve, particularly the New York Bank, tried its best to aid the European governments and to prop up unsound credit positions. … The New York Federal Reserve loaned, in , million to the Bank of England, million to the German Reichsbank, and smaller amounts to Hungary and Austria. As a result, much frozen assets were shifted, to become burdens to the United States.

After the Civil War, Congress wanted to reeslish the metallic standard at prewar rates. The market price of gold in greenbacks was above the preWar fixed price . per ounce of gold requiringdeflationto achieve the preWar price. This was accomplished by growing the stock of money less rapidly than real output. By the market price matched the mint price of gold. Thecoinage act of also known as the Crime of demonetized silver. This act removed the . grain silver dollar from circulation. Subsequently silver was only used in coins worth less than fractional currency. With the resumption of convertibility on June , the government again paid its debts in gold, accepted greenbacks for customs and redeemed greenbacks on demand in gold. Greenbacks were therefore perfect substitutes for gold coins. During the latter part of the nineteenth century the use of silver and a return to the bimetallic standard were recurrent political issues, raised especially byWilliam Jennings Bryan, thePeoples Partyand theFree Silvermovement. In the gold dollar was declared the standard unit of account and a gold reserve for government issued notes was eslished. Greenbacks, silver certificates, and silver dollars continued to be legal tender, all redeemable in gold.

The use of gold as money began thousands of years ago in Asia Minor.

From to various attempts to resurrect bimetallic standards were made, including one based on the gold and silver franc; however, with the rapid influx of silver from new deposits, the expectation of scarce silver ended.

the quantity of money supplied by the Fed must be equal to the quantity demanded by money holders

Agold standardis amonetary systemin which the standardis based on a fixed quantity ofgold. Three s can be distinguished specie, bullion, and exchange.

Timeline Golds history as a currency standard

Bernanke, Ben; Harold James October . The Gold Standard, Deflation, and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression An International Comparison.

Ottawa Bank of Canada, , pp. , .

In the s, the United States was in a situation that satisfied the conditions for a liquidity trap. Over overnight rates fell to zero, and they remained on the floor through the s.

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Drummond, Ian M. The Gold Standard and the International Monetary System . Macmillan Education, LTD, .

In May a run onAustrias largest commercial bankcaused it to il. The run spread to Germany, where the central bank also collapsed. International financial assistance was too late and in July Germany adopted exchange controls, followed by Austria in October. The Austrian and German experiences, as well as British budgetary and political difficulties, were among the ctors that destroyed confidence in sterling, which occurred in midJuly . Runs ensued and the Bank of England lost much of its reserves.

Thompson, Earl A.; Charles Robert Hickson .

Globalizing Capital A History of the International Monetary System

atGoogle BooksThe Everything Economics Book From theory to practice, your complete guide to understanding economics today Everything Series

In the largest producers of gold, in order, were China, Australia, U.S., South Africa and Russia.

The British Gold Standard Act both introduced the gold bullion standard and simultaneously repealed the gold specie standard. The new standard ended the circulation of gold specie coins. Instead, the law compelled the authorities to sell gold bullion on demand at a fixed price, but only in the form of bars containing approximately four hundredounces troy[kg] offine gold.John Maynard Keynes, citing deflationary dangers, argued against resumption of the gold standard.By fixing the price at the prewar rate of .,clarification neededChurchill is argued to have made an error that led to depression, unemployment and the general strike. The decision was described byAndrew Turnbullas a historic mistake.

In Alan GreenspanwroteDeficit spendingis simply a scheme for the confiscation of wealth. Gold stands in the way of this insidious process. It stands as a protector of property rights. If one grasps this, one has no difficulty in understanding the statists antagonism toward the gold standard.

Timberlake, Richard H. .Gold Standards and the Real Bills Doctrine in US Monetary Policy.

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Similarly, economists likeRobert Barroargued that whilst some form of monetary constitution is essential for sle, depoliticized monetary policy, the form this constitution takesfor example, a gold standard, some other commoditybased standard, or a fiat currency with fixed rules for determining the quantity of moneyis considerably less important.

. U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

. Princeton, NJ McGrawHill Book, Company, Inc. pp. pg.ISBN.

During the early and highMiddle Ages, theByzantinegoldsolidus, commonly known as thebezant, was used widely throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. However, as the Byzantine Empires economic influence declined, so too did the use of the bezant.In its place, European territories chose silver as their currency over gold, leading to the development ofsilver standards.citation needed

. Princeton University Press. pp..ISBN

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Mainstream economistsbelieve that economic recessions can be largely mitigated by increasing the money supply during economic downturns.

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A return to the gold standard was considered by the US Gold Commission back in , but found only minority support.In proposed a new currency that would be used initially for international trade among Muslim nations, using theIslamic gold dinar, defined as .grams of pure carat gold. Mahathir claimed it would be a sle unit of account and a political symbol of unity between Islamic nations. This would purportedly reduce dependence on the US dollar and eslish a nondebtbacked currency in accord withSharia lawthat prohibited the charging of interest.As of updatethe global monetary system continued to rely on the US dollar as the mainreserve currency.

The forced contraction of the money supply resulted in deflation. Even as nominal interest rates dropped, inflationadjusted real interest rates remained high, rewarding those who held onto money instead of spending it, further slowing the economy.Recovery in the United States was slower than in Britain, in part due to Congressional reluctance to abandon the gold standard and float the U.S. currency as Britain had done.

. New York Oxford University Press.ISBN.

Hamilton contended that the gold standard is susceptible tospeculative attackswhen a governments financial position appears weak. Conversely, this threat discourages governments from engaging in risky policy seemoral hazard. For example, the U.S. was forced to contract the money supply and raise interest rates in September to defend the dollar after speculators forced the UK off the gold standard.

Mauldin, John; Tepper, Jonathan .

The gold standard and the international monetary system

Demirg├žKunt, Asli; Enrica Detragiache April .CrossCountry Empirical Studies of Systemic Bank Distress A Survey.

Some economists believe that the gold standard acts as a limit on economic growth. As an economys productive capacity grows, then so should its money supply.

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Krech, Shepard; John Robert McNeill;Carolyn Merchant.

Krugman, Paul.The Gold Bug Variations. Slate

Coletta, Paolo E.Greenbackers, Goldbugs, and Silverites Currency Reform and Politics, ,in H. Wayne Morgan ed., The Gilded Age A Reappraisal. Syracuse, NY Syracuse University Press, ; pp..

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